human trafficking in thailand statistics 2018

In 2018, prosecutors filed restitution claims on behalf of 116 victims for 77.56 million baht ($2.4 million); however, the government did not report how many victims successfully obtained restitution. Despite political will, law enforcement agencies lack the skills, knowledge, and resources to understand and respond to the evolving complexities of human trafficking. Government efforts to more quickly complete trafficking prosecutions may have resulted in victims spending less time in shelters. Similarly, there must be greater effort to address the needs of victims. While the number of migrant workers entering Thailand through formal government-to-government migration systems increased, greater usage of this mechanism continued to be impeded by lack of information, lengthy processing times, difficulties in changing employers, and high costs tied to corruption on both sides of the border. To assess the state of youth anti-human trafficking programming in Ohio, the University of Dayton Human Rights Center conducted a series of online and telephone surveys in 2018. The fight against human trafficking requires better national criminal justice systems to effectively enforce anti-trafficking laws, and these efforts must be part of a broader, multitrack approach that addresses the socioeconomic and political dynamics of trafficking. Conflicts in Myanmar and the southern Philippines are another major source of vulnerable refugees, according to the US Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons Report 2017. 3 years ago | 2.2K views. 1 The most common form of human trafficking (79 percent) is sexual exploitation, with victims predominantly being women and girls. Home Office, National Referral Mechanism Statistics: UK, End of Year Summary, 2019. Federal trafficking stats: There are three main agencies that deal with trafficking on the Federal level: DOJ, DHS (ICE), and FBI. Police utilized DNA testing to determine the relationship between child victims of forced begging and the adults accompanying them, and the government prosecuted parents from neighboring countries who brought their children to Thailand more than once to engage in begging. Contact the National Human Trafficking Hotline. Many Southeast Asian victims migrate in search of paid jobs but wind up forced to labor in fishing, agriculture, construction, and domestic work, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). “The 2018 Trafficking in Person’s report recognizes Thailand’s continuing commitment to combating human trafficking,” stated U.S. Sources below. This included 5.6 million baht ($171,780) provided to 760 victims from its anti-trafficking fund (5.8 million baht ($177,910) to 648 victims in 2016). The Asia-Pacific region is the world’s most lucrative when it comes to forced labor (see chart). The government increased law enforcement efforts. [89] Still, huge challenges remain, notably the serious lack of accurate and reliable information on the scale and scope of trafficking, which makes it difficult to measure the effectiveness of anti-trafficking policies. Statistics on forced labour, modern slavery and human trafficking Global estimates on forced labour Nearly 21 million people - three out of every 1,000 people worldwide - are victims of forced labour across the world, trapped in jobs which they were coerced or deceived into and which they cannot leave. In June 2017, the government issued a royal ordinance concerning management of foreign worker employment, which required additional registration requirements for migrant workers and their employers, and strengthened penalties for employers of undocumented workers. Trafficking in Persons report considered Thailand to be a Tier 2 country, meaning the report states that although the Government of Thailand does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, it is making significant efforts to do so. Following the adoption of the Beggar Control Act in 2016, the government increased efforts to investigate forced and child begging; it initiated 26 forced begging investigations in 2017, compared to eight in 2016. The Thailand Anti-Trafficking in Persons Task Force (TATIP), which specialized in investigating complex cases and comprised law enforcement, social workers, and NGOs, investigated 29 cases in 2018, resulting in the prosecution of 69 offenders. The number of victims soared from 622 in 2018, while the previous high was 982 in 2015, the government data showed. The late 1700s to the 1850s witnessed an influx in the number of Chinese labor workers and sex workers coming to Thailand. The government increased the number of PIPO inspection teams from 64 to 85. Geneva: International Organization for Migration and International Labour Organization. Following the completion of the horizontal evaluation of the National Action Plan, in Budget 2018, the Government of Canada announced $14.51 million over five years, beginning in 2018-2019, and $2.89 million per year ongoing, to establish a National Human Trafficking Hotline. It increased funding for migrant labor management and anti-trafficking efforts to 3.6 billion baht ($110.4 million) in fiscal year 2018 from 3.2 billion baht ($98.2 million) in fiscal year 2017. Menu. The government issued regulations to increase oversight of NGO-operated shelters and provide access to governmental financial support. NGOs reported a decline in the prevalence of child begging following the passage of the Beggar Control Act during the previous reporting period, which provided for health and social services to beggars, including trafficking victims. Given the low literacy rate and diversity of languages among at-risk persons, however, this information remained inaccessible to many vulnerable non-Thai speakers. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Some parents or brokers force children from Thailand, Cambodia and Burma to sell flowers, beg, or work in domestic service in urban areas. Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP), Public Sector Debt Statistics Online Centralized Database, Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2016 (pdf), Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage. The UNODC stresses the need to help victims overcome the trauma and stigma associated with trafficking and to build trust in law enforcement, so that victims seek help and cooperate in prosecuting traffickers. Jonathan Head has spent six months investigating the trafficking of humans in Thailand. The focus on criminalization and prosecution may have increased awareness, but more should be done to prevent trafficking through effective law enforcement and efforts to educate vulnerable groups about its dangers. Human trafficking is a complex phenomenon fueled by the tremendous growth in the global sex market. In addition, the Royal Thai Navy conducted 3,927 on board inspections of fishing vessels in 2017 and suspended 110 vessels from operating for legal violations. Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves using force, fraud, or coercion to … Drugs 3. It conducted campaigns through newspapers, television, radio, social media, billboards, and handouts to raise public awareness throughout the country. Enforce Thailand’s Anti-Trafficking Act . In addition, the government required fishing vessels operating within Thai waters to return to ports every 30 days for inspections. The government increased efforts to prevent trafficking. The government took steps to decrease the demand for commercial sex acts, including by investigating and prosecuting offenders who purchased children for commercial sex acts. The government continued to grant citizenship to stateless persons in 2017 and issued a new regulation to provide legal residency to orphaned and non-Thai children born in Thailand. The government completed a manual outlining standard operating procedures (SOPs) for trafficking investigations and initiated a pilot in one region in early 2018 to test the procedures; the pilot was ongoing at the end of the reporting period. December 21, 2018 . Improve the capacity of law enforcement, labor inspectors, and first responders to consistently and proactively screen for and identify victims among vulnerable populations, including migrant workers, stateless persons, children, and refugees, and to ensure victims are not subjected to arrest, detainment, or deportations for crimes committed as a direct result of being subjected to trafficking; proactively investigate and prosecute officials allegedly complicit in trafficking, and convict and punish those found guilty with dissuasive sentences; improve the capacity of law enforcement to proactively prosecute and convict sex and labor traffickers; improve law enforcement and first responders' ability to identify and prosecute cases of forced labor, especially in cases lacking physical coercion or confinement; continue to train multidisciplinary teams and labor inspectors to improve the quality of fishing vessel inspections that could result in the identification of victims and criminal investigations; ensure government- and NGO-run shelters provide victims with adequate trauma-informed care, including legal assistance, and increase the provision of financial compensation and restitution to victims, including to those who are unable to work outside shelters; foster an environment conducive to reporting human trafficking crimes without fear of criminal prosecution and provide protections for multidisciplinary teams against interference or retaliation; regulate migrant worker labor recruiters, including by enforcing bans on worker-paid recruitment fees and by prosecuting cases with indicators of trafficking; improve migrant workers' rights, legal status, and labor migration policies to minimize the risk of trafficking; enforce regular payment of wages and the rights of employees to retain possession of their own identity and financial documents; and proactively inform migrant workers and other vulnerable populations of their rights, including under new migrant worker regulations, and legal protections from human trafficking. The United Nations has reported that armed groups in the Philippines, including Moro rebels and communists, recruit children, at times through force, for combat and noncombat roles. As state participation has grown, the UCR Program has seen an increase in data submissions. Some of those victims are right here in Ohio, and among them are the most innocent members of society — children. Yet despite growing evidence that climate change increasingly drives forced migration, the link with human trafficking remains relatively unexplored. Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU Final report - 2018 Lancaster University. The government identified 455 victims in 2017 (824 in 2016), including 336 sex trafficking victims (335 in 2016) and 119 labor trafficking victims (489 in 2016). Human trafficking is a crime in itself but it is rarely the end goal for the perpetrators. A comprehensive, more human-centered approach compels us to delve deeper into the other drivers of human trafficking, including poverty, severe exploitation, and political repression. human trafficking is underreported, underdetected, and thus underprosecuted. MSDHS and MOL operated hotlines with operators fluent in 20 foreign languages; the MSDHS hotline received 172 calls related to possible trafficking cases in 2017 (269 in 2016), leading to the identification of 109 child and 63 adult victims and prosecution of 73 cases. The second most common form is forced labor (18 percent). The Human Trafficking Criminal Procedures Act allowed judges to award compensation or restitution to victims, including in the absence of a victim request for these funds. NGOs reported concerns over the lack of appropriate options for foreign children whose families were complicit in their trafficking or whose identities could not be established. National Human Trafficking Hotline. Corruption and official complicity in trafficking crimes continued to impede anti-trafficking efforts, and the government sometimes utilized administrative punishments against suspected complicit officials, such as suspensions or transfers to new positions, rather than subjecting them to criminal prosecutions. In addition to personal safety and security, victims need access to legal protection, health care, and temporary shelter, as well as assistance with repatriation and integration. Human trafficking not only involves sex and labor, but people are also trafficked for organ harvesting. In an effort to improve the quality of trafficking prosecutions across the country, the government operated a sub-unit within the OAG trafficking division to provide guidance and mentoring for provincial law enforcement, prosecutors, and other court officials. The government's criminal defamation laws allowed companies to pursue criminal charges against potential victims during the reporting period; additionally, labor inspectors could be held personally liable for claims of abuse of power, which could be misused and limit their ability or willingness to perform their work. If you or someone you know needs help, call the National Human Trafficking Hotline toll-free hotline, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week at 1-888-373-7888 to speak with a specially trained Anti-Trafficking Hotline Advocate. Southeast Asia’s refugees and displaced people are victimized by human traffickers, but the crime usually goes unreported. ART TEXTURE: ISTOCK / PHONGPHAN5922; DESIFOTO The law protected victims from prosecution for acts committed as a result of being subjected to trafficking; however, flaws in the government's implementation of victim identification procedures and its efforts to arrest and deport immigration violators increased victims' risk of being re-victimized and treated as criminals. The Global Slavery Index estimates that there were 136,000 people living in modern slavery in the United Kingdom (UK) on any given day in 2016, reflecting a prevalence rate of 2.1 victims for every thousand people in the country. The statistics contained on this website are based on aggregated information learned through signals -- phone calls, texts, online chats, emails, and online tip reports -- received by the Trafficking Hotline. The 610 sex and labor trafficking victims whom the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting in government and NGO shelters (401 in 2018), included 134 Thai and 476 foreign victims, and 170 victims of sex trafficking and 440 victims of labor trafficking. In one prosecution completed in 2017, the government convicted 62 offenders, including 11 government officials, involved in the trafficking of Rohingya migrants; it sentenced convicted officials to prison terms ranging from 14 to 79 years. “Climate Change Has Created a New Generation of Sex-Trafficking Victims.” Quartz, May 2. International Labour Organization (ILO) and Walk Free Foundation. MOL conducted inspections onboard 644 vessels in 2017 and found 34 violations of the law (15 in 2016); three cases were prosecuted as a result. There are reports that some brokers and employers continue to confiscate identity documents. 2018 . A common critique of anti-trafficking regimes is that most efforts have focused on criminalizing and prosecuting traffickers, as opposed to preventing the crime and protecting its victims. Employers were also mandated to cover costs (excluding personal expenses such as passports, medical checks, and work permits) associated with bringing migrant workers to Thailand and back to their home countries when employment ends, such as recruitment fees and transportation costs. Thailand’s Trafficking in Persons 2014 Country Report. Last Updated: Friday, 15 January 2021, 09:32 GMT, 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, Survivors of trafficking / Persons at risk of trafficking. Thailand figures prominently in human traffickers' maps as a preferred destination in Southeast Asia, government data shows. The government did not report how many of these violations had direct ties to trafficking. The U.S. National Human Trafficking Hotline provides survivors of human trafficking with vital support and options to get help and stay safe. Victims, not perpetrators, are often the ones who suffer physical abuse and prosecution for illegal migration. and Thailand in 2015 is gruesome evidence of such collusion; a Thai general and police officers were among 62 people convicted of human trafficking and other crimes connected with the case, accord - ing to news reports. By Aashna Sawhney – Staff Writer. Fifty-one percent of victims in East Asia were women, and children comprised nearly a third, according to the UNODC report. Most of the victims were from Myanmar. [88] Thailand has also entered into regional agreements against human trafficking, including The Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Trafficking. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States. Since 2013, the amount of people trafficked into India from Nepal has increased by 500% in 2017 . Some also reported gaps in Thai policies related to migrant workers that exacerbated exploitation, such as no requirement that employment contracts be written in both Thai and workers' languages, lack of clear guidance to measure work and rest hours for workers aboard fishing vessels, and difficulty for workers to change employers. Women, men, boys, and girls from Thailand, other Southeast Asian countries, Sri Lanka, Russia, Uzbekistan, and some African countries are subjected to labor and sex trafficking in Thailand. Tao Gae – fishing boat owner or fleet owner. Armed conflict makes children even more vulnerable. Through government-to-government formal migration channels, the government facilitated 20,068 Thais to obtain employment abroad in 2017. Authorities assisted in repatriating 147 foreign victims exploited in Thailand, including 36 Rohingya, and facilitated the return of 45 Thais exploited abroad by providing funding for travel expenses, legal assistance, job placement, and other reintegration services. Trafficking in Persons Report 2018 (pdf). Collusion between corrupt government officials and criminal networks is another severe problem. Thai, Burmese, Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Indonesian men and boys are subject to forced labor on Thai and foreign-owned fishing boats. TATIP included teams of first responders dedicated to screening potential victims, gathering evidence, conducting operations, interrogating subjects, and analyzing digital evidence. Some government officials profit from bribes and direct involvement in the extortion and exploitation of migrants. The main piece of legislation in Thailand relating to human trafficking is the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act, B.E. The government continued to allow more adult trafficking victims the ability to travel, work, and reside outside shelters as provided by Thailand's anti-trafficking law. The government demonstrated increasing efforts by prosecuting and convicting more traffickers, and decreasing prosecution time for trafficking cases through the use of specialized anti-trafficking law enforcement divisions. Victims are paid too little or not at all for working up to 20 hours a day. As recently as 2015, there were reports of separatist groups in southern Thailand recruiting and using children to commit acts of arson or serve as scouts. Thailand's commercial sex industry remains vast, increasing vulnerabilities for sex trafficking. Geneva. The anti-money laundering office seized assets worth more than 31 million baht ($950,920) from suspected traffickers in 2017, including in cases involving forced labor on fishing vessels, compared to 784 million baht ($24 million) seized in 2016. Victims were prosecuted for crimes committed as a direct result of being subjected to trafficking, including prostitution and immigration violations. In addition, NGOs and international organizations widely reported the government did not adequately enforce the application of minimum wages in sectors with a minimum wage and lacked legislation to require minimum wages in other sectors, especially in those sectors with high employment of migrant workers. Most of them are men who cannot repay exorbitant fees charged by unauthorized brokers and recruiters and so become vulnerable to debt bondage and other forms of exploitation, according to the US Department of State’s Some remain at sea for several years, are paid very little or irregularly, work as much as 18 to 20 hours per day for seven days a week, and are reportedly threatened, physically beaten, drugged to work longer, and even killed for becoming ill, attempting to escape, or disobeying orders. Of the 450 victims in government shelters, 287 were employed either inside or outside shelters during the course of legal proceedings. The OAG required all prosecutors to expedite the submission of trafficking cases to the Courts of Justice. Victims of child trafficking can be used and abused over and over; A $32 billion-a-year industry, human trafficking is on the rise and is in all 50 states (U.S. Government) In October 2017, the government issued regulations to provide for government oversight of NGO shelters while making available the technical support of MSDHS and the opportunity for NGOs to apply for funds from the MSDHS anti-trafficking fund. 21st Century Sex Slaves ★ Documentary Human Trafficking ★ HD National Geo Doc Discover. Refworld is the leading source of information necessary for taking quality decisions on refugee status. Victims and activists may have been deterred from reporting, and some officials may have been hesitant to pursue investigations of exploitation due to risks of facing criminal defamation charges brought by unscrupulous employers. Data were collected on 43 human-trafficking prevention education programs for youths across the state. 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